AO1.

The Pennsylvania Infant and Family Development Project 1: Stability and change in mother-infant and father-infant interaction in a family setting at one, three, and nine months. Child Development, 55, 692 - … Parent-Infant Attachment: Traditionally researchers have thought in terms of mother-infant attachment.

The mother was the main attachment figure for about half of the children at 18 months old and the father for most of the others. Infant attachment is the deep emotional connection that an infant forms with his or her primary caregiver, often the mother. Misunderstandings of African-American infant attachments are likely if evaluative standards derived from infant caregiving in traditional white middle-class culture and an external point of view are employed. tion of the reality of child-caregiver attachments, we focused in this study on the congruence of the quality of attachments that two children form with the same caregiver and on the concordance of the attachments that two caregivers form with the same child. Multiple Attachments and the Role of the Father (AO1, Description): One of the most important questions attachment research has to answer concerns over who infants become attached to. An exploratory study involving 37 African-American infants found that they had between 2 and 5 primary adult caregivers, as well as a larger set of secondary caregivers. Attachment ( interactions, stages, multiple attachments) caregiver- infant interactions reciprocity- interactions between carers and infants- causing both the infant and the caregiver to produce responses from one another. Attachments of African-American infants should be studied with a focus on cultural practices involved with multiple caregiving. The research was conducted in … It is a tie that binds them together, endures over time, and leads the infant to experience pleasure, joy, safety , and comfort in the caregiver's company.

Multiple Attachments.

Assessments of African-American infant attachments that use standards of a culture in which care is provided by a primary caretaker should be replaced by assessment based on the cultural perspective of African-Americans. By 18 months 31% had five or more attachments. Many of the babies from the Schaffer and Emerson study had multiple attachments by 10 months old, including attachments to mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings and neighbours.

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